Gynaecological consultations and check-ups
In the course of a visit, a medical history is taken and completed, various examinations are carried out such as observation of the genitalia with vaginal specula or vaginal speculum, bimanual examination of the internal genitalia and pelvic organs (uterus, tubes and ovaries, intestines) and breasts, and cervico-vaginal cytology. Depending on the needs of the case, complementary examinations such as abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound or various analytical tests may be performed.
Cytology and ultrasound
Gynaecological cytology is a technique for screening and early diagnosis of pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix and endometrium (uterine mucosa).
It is advisable to take it after menstruation and without previous treatment or vaginal washings. It is performed without any additional preparation.
Cytology also allows the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, to be suspected due to certain cellular alterations. Complementary analyses should be carried out on the same or subsequent samples to confirm the presence of this infection in the woman (detection and typing of HPV).
Cytology also enables, although it is not its main purpose, a hormonal diagnosis and a bacteriological diagnosis:
- Hormonal diagnosis: Assesses the appearance and size of cells in the different phases of the menstrual cycle, helping to identify hormonal disorders.
- Bacteriological diagnosis: This allows identification of the vaginal microbiota (microorganisms such as lactobacillus or Doederlein flora, haemophilus, cocci, fungi and candida, trichomonas, protozoa, etc.) and detection of other infections.
Ultrasound or ultrasonography performs diagnostic imaging using a technology that emits ultrasound waves through a probe or transducer to different areas of the human body, which then collects the echoes that bounce back from the tissues and transfers them to the ultrasound machine, which processes them digitally and displays them on a screen or monitor.
There are different probes adapted to their function, such as abdominal, vaginal and linear probes, used in gynaecology and obstetrics.
Family planning enables individuals to make informed decisions regarding their sexual and reproductive health and thus control the number of children through the use of contraceptive methods.
There is a wide variety of contraceptive methods that allow couples to use the method that best suits their bodies and needs.
- Barrier methods.
- Birth control pills.
- Vaginal ring.
- Subcutaneous implant.
- Intrauterine devices (IUDs).
- Injectable contraception.
The best method of contraception is the one that is used regularly, creates the most confidence for the woman and her partner, and does not cause bothersome side effects.
Pregnancy monitoring and control
The purpose of the medical control of pregnancy is to monitor the evolution of the pregnancy, focusing on all aspects that influence the health of the pregnant woman and the foetus. In this sense, it is advisable to make monthly medical visits as soon as the pregnancy is confirmed (urine/blood test or ultrasound), which generally occurs after the first or second miscarriage.
At the first visit, a gynaecological examination with cytology is recommended (if it has not been done in the last year) and at subsequent visits, an obstetric examination, weight and blood pressure control, certain analytical tests are routinely carried out, and information is also provided on nutrition and healthy habits with regard to pregnancy.
In some cases, closer follow-up is advised due to family and personal history (medical-surgical and gynaecological-obstetric) or clinical findings (high-risk pregnancy).
This treatment corrects vaginal hyperlaxity that can appear after childbirth, strengthening and toning the vaginal walls.
It is a laser procedure, without the need for anaesthesia, which allows immediate return to daily life.